GREECE: PKK organizes a number of propaganda events in line with current developments including marches, hunger strikes, handing out pamphlets, commemorations, panels, conferences, etc. Demonstrations and events are usually coordinated by the Democratic Cultural Association of Kurdistan.
GERMANY: Germany is well-known for hosting a strong and pronounced presence of PKK where the group has been raising highest amounts of funds and drawing highest number of recruits. NAV-DEM/Democratic Kurdish Community Center of Germany is the umbrella organization PKK uses to coordinate activities in Germany. NAV-DEM serves as the base of all activities by several groups including KCDK-E/Kurdish Democratic Society Congress in Europe, Komalen Ciwan (youth wing), YJA/Free Women Units (female front), Dest Dan Kurdish Women’s Association and CIK/Islamic Community of Kurdistan.
SWITZERLAND: PKK in Switzerland concentrates on disseminating propaganda, raising funds, organizing protest rallies and building/developing diplomatic and political relations.
NCDK-S/Democratic Community Center for the People of Kurdistan in Switzerland serves as the center of the PKK activities in the country while HDK-S/Peoples’ Democratic Congress in Switzerland and SYKP/Socialist Re-foundation Party play a prominent role in planning various events. PKK Youth Movement (Ciwanen Azad) and Young Women’s Union (Komalen Jinen Ciwan) also undertake significant responsibility in organizing PKK activities. PKK members are involved in engaging new recruits, disseminating propaganda and annual fundraising campaigns in Switzerland. (Periodical fundraising campaigns in Europe in general, including those in Switzerland, are launched at the same time.)
BELGIUM: Belgium acts as PKK’s operational base in Europe. NAV-BEL/Democratic Kurdish Community Council of Belgium is the headquarters for the numerous ‘Community Assemblies’ PKK established in various cities of Belgium. Kurdish Cultural Center of Brussels, Kurdish Democratic Society Council of Anvers, Kurdish Democratic Society Council of Limburg, Kurdish Democratic Society Council of Charleroi, Kurdish Cultural Association of Liege, Kurdish Cultural Center of Leuven (MALA KURD), Democratic Kurdish Society Congress of Gent, Kurdish Cultural Association of Verviers are some of the prominent PKK-affiliated entities in the country. Belgium also hosts a number of PKK-controlled television studios as well.KNK/Kurdistan National Congress, the PKK/KCK’s so-called parliament, is based in Belgium and comprises various sub-committees and units.
CYPRUS: Pro-PKK activities in Cyprus are sustained at ‘propaganda dissemination’ level though the number and extent of these activities have been mounting.
PKK presence in the TRNC/Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is promoted through the Kurds based in Cyprus as well as an increasing number of Kurdish students studying in Cypriot universities, student communities and legal associations. PKK in the GASC/Greek Administration of Southern Cyprus, in the meanwhile, operates under PKK European network.
UNITED KINGDOM: Pro-Kurdish groups with PKK affiliation carry out their activities under the umbrella of ‘Kurdish People’s Assembly of UK’. The culturally diverse texture of London and the prevalent Kurdish population in the city makes ‘Kurdish People’s Assembly of London’ a more influential entity than the ‘Kurdish People’s Assembly of UK’; such effectiveness of ‘Kurdish People’s Assembly of London’ also ensures a more organized and coordinated functioning.
‘Kurdish People’s Assembly of London’ serves as the parent organization to COMMUNITY HOUSE/East London Kurdish Community Center, KCC/North London Kurdish Community Center, Roj Women (women’s assembly) and the youth wing Ciwanen Azad UK (Free Roni Youth Assembly). In addition, Kurdish Red Crescent in UK (HSK/Heyva Sor) operates under Kurdish People’s Assembly of UK.
SPAIN: PKK activities usually take the form of press conferences, protest rallies or marches. Spanish members of extreme left-wing or anarchist groups, particularly in Catalonia and Basque Country, support PKK activities.
Rojava Azadi and Kurdistan Friendship Community in Madrid, Azadi Platform in Catalonia and Newroz Euskal Kurdu Alkartea in the Basque Country exert a significant hold over PKK sympathizers via social media.
NORWAY: PKK activities in Norway are mostly carried out through associations. National Young Kurdish Association of Norway (Ungkurd Norge Riksforbundet), Democratic Society Center/Cultural Foundation of Kurdistan (Kurdistan Kulturforeningen) and Solidarity with Kurdistan (Solidaritet med Kurdistan) play a prominent role in organizing various events in Oslo.
FRANCE: France serves as a base of financial and logistic activities as well as recruitment efforts and political initiatives. The group seeks to keep its activities in France within legal boundaries.
ITALY: ASM/Ararat Social Community Center in Rome, Kurdish Committee of Milan in Milan and several Kurdish committees named after the city they are based make up the backbone of the PKK structure in Italy. These centers organize/coordinate activities for PKK members and sympathizers.
UIKI/Kurdistan Information Bureau of Italy is in charge of developing/maintaining relations/contacts with the Italian intelligentsia including politicians or media figures.
FINLAND: PKK/KCK activities in Finland are usually carried out through legal entities (associations, foundations, NGOs, etc.) founded by PKK members. Most recently members have been acting in line with the PKK strategy of ‘disassociating the group from acts of terror and painting an image of a democratic entity’ in their bid to achieve PKK’s overall objective to get de-proscribed from the EU list of designated terrorist groups.
SWEDEN: PKK/KCK in Sweden are usually carried out through legal entities (associations, foundations, NGOs, etc.) founded by PKK members. Most recently members have been acting in line with the PKK strategy of ‘disassociating the group from acts of terror and painting an image of a democratic entity’ in their bid to achieve PKK’s overall objective to get de-proscribed from the EU list of designated terrorist groups.
AUSTRIA: A number of entities united under the umbrella of FEYKOM/Democratic Kurdish Community Center of Austria aspire to increase the number of PKK supporters, coordinate trainings of members in the north of Iraq, recruit militants to be dispatched to conflict zones and raise funds for PKK.
IRAQ: The PKK, which established main base posts in northern Iraq, namely in Qandil, Metina, Gare and Hakhurk, following the Gulf War and used this region as its main center during this period, operates under the name People’s Defense Forces (HPG) in Iraq. Political extension of the PKK is TevgeraAzadi (Freedom Movement).
LEBANON: PKK operated in Lebanon through the Lebanese Kurdish Culture and Humanitarian Union/ KURT-DER, which was established in 1999 and later closed down in 2006 by the Lebanese Ministry of Interior. The PKK started operating the Newroz Social Culture Association (KomelaNewrozYa Candi u Civaki) in Lebanon in 2014. Permissions required to organize events/demonstrations throughout Lebanon are taken through this association.
BRAZIL: Although the PKK remains inefficient in Brazil in general, the pro-PKK Committee for Solidarity between Kurdistan and Argentinian-Latin American Women (Comite De MujeresEnSolidaridad Con Kurdistan Argentino- Latino America) holds events few times a year in Sao Paolo/ Brazil and these events are in the forms of commemoration ceremonies/ photograph exhibitions.
ARGENTINA:The pro-PKK Committee for Solidarity between Kurdistan and Argentinian- Latin American Women (Comite De MujeresEnSolidaridad Con Kurdistan Argentino- Latino America) hold events such a s commemoration ceremonies/ photograph exhibitions.
HUNGARY: The PKK organizes demonstrations, marches in Hungary to raise public awareness and for propaganda purposes through its entity called the Kurdistan Culture and Information Association (KEKD), though these events are not of sensational nature.
ROMANIA:The PKK operates in Romania through Romanian Kurdish Culture Association (KOMAL). Official name of the Association in Romanian is “AsociataCulturala a KurzilorRezidenti in Romania”. The Association holds organizational and propaganda activities and is involved in fund raising and transfer.
UKRAINE: Ukraine is used by PKK members as an area for temporary shelter and hiding. The organization allegedly runs its activities in Ukraine through the Midiya Association (AKOO Midia/ AsotsiatsiyaKurdskikhObshcestvennykhOrganizatsiyMidiya) based in Kiev.
DENMARK: PKK activities in Denmark are run through the umbrella organization of all the Kurdish associations in the country which is the Denmark Kurdish Associations Federation (FEY-KURD) and the Denmark Democratic Kurdish Society Center.
RUSSIA: PKK operates in the RF especially through the Yezidi Russian Kurds. It organizes the Kurdish population in the country through various entities in Moscow, treats injured/ ill organization members arriving from northern Iraq and procures funds. It also carries out propaganda activities to raise public awareness, develops relationships and procures political assistance.
SAUDI ARABIA: PKK activities in Saudi Arabia focus on organization of meetings, commemoration ceremonies etc. by its sympathizers on the dates deemed significant for the organization and collection of money to assist the familiesof the deceased terrorists.
AUSTRALIA: The pro-PKK community mainly organizes commemoration ceremonies and celebrations and holds meetings in the Democratic Kurdish Community Center (NAV-DEM) building in Sydney and the Democratic Kurdish Community Center (NAV-KURD building in Victoria. Despite lacking a proper agenda assessment mechanism, the associations and sympathizers mainly react in forms of press conferences etc. to developments against Kurdish people.
IRAN: Following the Iraqi invasion, the PKK began operating in Iran under the name PJAK (Free Life Party) and launched its anti-Iran activities. The area was previously dominated for long years by the Iran Kurdistan Democratic Party (IKDP) and KOMELE. PJAK has a unit formed of women, which is the Women’s Defense Forces (HezenParastinaJine- HPG), and an armed wing called East Kurdistan Defense Forces (YekineyenParastinaRojhilate Kurdistan- YRK).
JAPAN: If the dates considered important for the organization corresponds to weekends, the organization organizes commemoration ceremonies or celebrations in the country. It is also involved in efforts to procure financial assistance and propaganda activities through social media. It is recently observed that PKK-affiliates are involved in efforts to develop relations with Japanese politicians and NGOs.
THE NETHERLANDS: PKK inaugurated several associations and foundations for women, youngsters, members of various occupations, social projects and solidarity purposes particularly in The Hague, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Dodrecht, Utrecht, Arnhem and Almelo to influence public opinion in the country, recruit militants and sympathizers, disseminate PKK propaganda, raise funds and provide logistic support, etc. DEM-NED/Council of Kurdistan Communities (Raad van Gemenschappen uit Koerdistan-Democratisch Koerdische Gememeenschap in Nederland) which operates under KCD-E, the higher PKK structure in Europe, is the coordinating body for overall PKK activities in The Netherlands while democratic society centers based in various Dutch cities are responsible for organizing and implementing these activities.